Научные публикации

Статья «Property rights, land liquidity, and internal migration» принята к публикации в Journal of Development Economics.

Авторы: Пол Довер, Chernina E., Markevich A. . Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 110, pp. 191-215

Аннотация

In the early twentieth century, a large number of households resettled from the European to the Asian part of the Russian Empire. We propose that this dramatic migration was rooted in institutional changes initiated by the 1906 Stolypin land titling reform. One might expect better property rights to decrease the propensity to migrate by improving economic conditions in the reform area. However, this titling reform increased land liquidity and actually promoted migration by easing financial constraints and decreasing opportunity costs. Treating the reform as a quasi-natural experiment, we employ difference-in-differences analysis on a panel of province-level data that describe migration and economic conditions. We find that the reform had a sizeable effect on migration. To verify the land liquidity effect, we exploit variation in the number of households participating in the reform. This direct measure of the reform mechanism estimates that land liquidity explains approximately 18% of migration during this period.

Статья «Signalling credit-worthiness: land titles, banking practices and formal credit access in Indonesia» опубликована в Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies.

Автор: Пол Довер. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 435-459

Аннотация

Many land titling programs worldwide have produced lacklustre results in terms of achieving access to credit for the poor. This may reflect insufficient emphasis on local banking practices. Bankers commonly seek to ensure repayment by using methods other than securing collateral, such as targeting borrower characteristics that, on average, improve repayment rates. Formal land titles can signal these important characteristics to the bank. Using a household survey from Indonesia, we provide evidence that formal land titles have a positive and significant effect on access to credit and that at least part of this effect is best interpreted as an improvement in information flows. These results stand in contrast to the prevailing notion that land titles function only as collateral. Analysts who neglect local banking practices may misinterpret the observed effect of systematic land titling programs on credit access because these programs tend to reduce the signalling value of formal land titles.

Banyak program pemberian hak atas tanah di seluruh dunia berakhir buruk dalam kaitannya dengan penerimaan pinjaman kredit bagi masyarakat miskin. Hal ini bisa merefleksikan tidak memadainya praktik-praktik perbankan di daerah. Para bankir umumnya mencari kepastian atas pembayaran kembali melalui cara-cara selain penggunaan jaminan. Ini misalnya dilakukan dengan menargetkan peminjam berdasarkan karakteristik, yang secara rata-rata biasanya berhasil menaikkan tingkat pembayaran kembali. Adanya pemberian hak formal atas tanah dapat memberikan sinyal ini kepada bank. Dengan menggunakan survei rumah tangga dari Indonesia, para penulis membuktikan bahwa pemberian hak formal atas tanah memiliki efek yang positif dan signifikan kepada akses terhadap pinjaman. Sebagian dari efek ini dapat diinterpretasikan sebagai perbaikan dalam arus informasi. Hasil-hasil ini sangat kontras jika dibandingkan dengan studi-studi sebelumnya, yakni bahwa hak atas tanah berfungsi hanya sebagai jaminan. Para analis yang menafikan praktik perbankan lokal mungkin akan menyalahartikan efek yang diobservasi dari program sertifikasi tanah yang sistematis terhadap akses pinjaman, karena program-program demikian cenderung mengurangi nilai yang tersirat dari pemberian hak formal atas tanah

Статья «History of Resistance to Privatization in Russia» опубликована в Journal of comparative economics.

Авторы: Пол Довер, Markevich A. A.. Journal of comparative economics, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 855-873

Аннотация

We investigate the connection between privatization in post-communist Russia and a mass privatization reform in Imperial Russia, the 1906 Stolypin land reform. Specifically, we relate historical measures of conflicts associated with the Stolypin reform to contemporary views on whether the privatization of the 1990s should be revised. These historical measures could influence contemporary views in two ways: first, differences in privatization-related conflicts in the past could have directly altered attitudes towards privatization in the 1990s and, second, these differences could merely reflect pre-determined dissimilarities in preferences. We first show that historical measures of resistance to privatization are associated with views that favor state ownership. One standard deviation increase in the historical resistance to privatization explains a quarter of the negative sentiment toward private property today. We also find that negative experiences with the Stolypin reform are associated with views on the procedural unfairness of modern privatization reforms, suggesting that pre-determined preferences cannot fully explain the weight of history.

Статья «Local taxation of global corporation: a simple solution» опубликована в Annals of Economics and Statistics.

Авторы: Шломо Вебер, Hindriks J., Peralta S.. Annals of Economics and Statistics (Annales d’économie et de statistique), Vol. 113, pp. 37-65

Аннотация

The globalization of world markets has prompted firms’ search for benefits of international tax differentials. In this paper we consider a simple world with two countries and two multinationals with a division in each country. Both countries, that differ in market size, use a source-based profit tax on multinationals, who compete à la Cournot in local markets and use profit shifting based on the tax differential. We assess policies aimed to mitigate inefficient tax choices and show that tax harmonization cannot benefit the small country. We then propose a simple revenue sharing mechanism in which countries share equal proportion of their own revenue with each other, and show that revenue sharing increases equilibrium tax rates in each country, reduces the tax differential, and benefits both countries. Lastly we show that contrary to revenue sharing, the tax base equalization formula raises a fundamental equity issue.

Статья «Economics and the Establishment of Stalinism» принята к публикации в Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History.

Автор: Андрей Маркевич. Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History (2014), Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 125-132

Аннотация

After the collapse of communism, Soviet economic history remained a relatively small scholarly industry. Interest from other historians was limited because of skepticism regarding both the validity of the rational-choice approach employed by economic historians and the quality of data available to verify the approach.1 Students of Soviet history preferred to concentrate on political and social issues, taking advantage of the opening of the archives of the Soviet state. Yet declassified files on the Soviet economy remain largely underexplored; Gregory and Harrison have appraised the progress of work in this field, which in my view deserves more attention from historians as well as further development.2 I welcome the present discussion of Soviet economic history in Kritika and am grateful to the editors for the opportunity to take part in it. Before taking a careful look at the articles contributed to this issue, I will comment on what I consider the state of the art in the field of Soviet economic history and suggest contributions that further research in this vein could make to the understanding of Stalinism, Soviet history in general, and the nature of modern dictatorships.

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